Glioblastoma multiforme

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), WHO classification name "glioblastoma", is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, involving glial cells and accounting for 52% of all functional tissue brain tumor cases and 20% of all intracranial tumors.

GBM is rare, with incidence of 2–3 cases per 100,000[clarification needed] in Europe and North America. It presents two variants: giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma.

Treatment can involve chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Median survival with standard-of-care radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide is 15 months.Median survival without treatment is 4½ months. Although no randomized controlled trials have been done, surgery remains the standard of care.

It is very difficult to treat glioblastoma due to several complicating factors:
•    The tumor cells are very resistant to conventional therapies
•    The brain is susceptible to damage due to conventional therapy
•    The brain has a very limited capacity to repair itself
•    Many drugs cannot cross the blood–brain barrier to act on the tumor
Treatment of primary brain tumors and brain metastases consists of both symptomatic and palliative therapies.